EAB: Remember These Initials

If you haven’t heard the initials EAB, sooner or later you will. No, they don’t stand for the latest pop super group or a new, hot club you simply MUST get into. Rather, EAB stands for the Emerald Ash Borer. If you’re in an area that has a large number of Ash trees, unfortunately it’s a fairly safe bet that the EAB is heading your way.

The Emerald Ash Borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, is an exotic beetle that was first discovered in southeastern Michigan, near Detroit, in the summer of 2002. It probably arrived in the United States on solid wood packing material carried in cargo ships or airplanes originating in its native Asia. It has spread to numerous US States, since then. The latest documented find was in Louisiana, in the winter of 2015. Despite the fact that it feeds only on Ash (trees in the genus Fraxinus), the EAB is considered to be the most destructive forest pest ever seen in North America.

The adult beetles nibble on Ash foliage but cause little damage. Adult beetles are metallic green and about 1/2-inch long. They leave a D-shaped exit hole in the bark when they emerge in the Spring. The larvae (the immature stage) feed on the inner bark of Ash trees, disrupting the tree’s ability to transport water and nutrients.  It is the larvae that do the damage which eventually kills an afflicted tree. EAB larvae are creamy white and slightly flattened, with a pair of brown pincher-like appendages on the last segment of their bodies. Their size varies as they feed and grow under the Ash tree’s bark. Full-grown larvae average 1.5 inches in length. They wind back and forth as they feed, creating S-shaped patterns called galleries under the bark. Larvae will feed under the bark for one or two years and can survive in green wood, such as firewood, as long as the bark is attached. In autumn, after one or two years of feeding under the bark, larvae will create a chamber for themselves in the tree’s sapwood. They stay in this chamber over winter and pupate in the spring, turning into adults. The beetles emerge from the tree, completing the life cycle. The pupae, like the larvae, cannot be seen unless bark is pulled away from the tree. Woodpeckers like to eat EAB larvae; thus heavy woodpecker damage on Ash trees may be a sign of infestation.

EAB has killed millions of Ash trees in southeastern Michigan alone, with many more lost in the areas it has spread to.  The cost to municipalities, property owners, nursery operators and forest products industries, due to EAB infestations, now runs into the tens of millions of dollars. Regulatory agencies and the USDA have now enacted, and enforce, quarantines and fines to prevent potentially infested Ash trees, logs or hardwood firewood from moving out of areas where EAB occurs.

The good news is that several insecticide options are available to effectively treat landscape Ash trees threatened by EAB.  Keep in mind, however, that insecticide control of insects that feed under the bark has always been challenging. This is especially true with EAB because most of our native North American Ash trees have little natural resistance to this pest. Effective control of EAB requires some care when selecting an insecticide product and application method to ensure the product is applied at the proper rate and time. Thankfully, research continues, and we are now far more capable of fighting EAB than we were when it was first discovered.

In the Summer of 2014, the Arkansas Agriculture Department and USDA’s Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) announced that EAB had been discovered in five counties in southwest Arkansas, bringing this pest only one county away from Texas.  Because it is getting so close to Texas, it is wise to consider what impact EAB might have on our state.

The good news is that almost certainly the economic impact of this pest in Texas will be less than its impact in other states like Michigan and Ohio. That’s because Ash is less frequently planted here, and it makes up less of the native forest canopy, compared to the Midwest. In East Texas, where most Ash is located, less than 2% of the forest canopy consists of it. Fewer trees generally means less economic damage, and lower visual impact to city streets.

Some surveys done on Ash Trees in Texas show an average Ash percentage on urban streets of around 14% with a few parks reaching 30-40%. Unfortunately, in Austin, we have an Ash community that stands at around 17% of our urban forest. Compare these numbers with Ash numbers in Iowa (average of 16.5% of urban trees, some communities up to 87% Ash), Pennsylvania (14% of all trees).  Even Colorado reports Ash composition of city trees at between 15-25% of all shade trees. In the Chicago area, where EAB has hit hard, 12% of city trees are estimated to be Ash, and about 15% in Minneapolis.

In Texas’ favor, as mentioned above, is that there has now been over ten years of research on control of EAB; and some effective treatments are available for at-risk trees.  The most effective treatments are systemic insecticides which can be applied to the base of the trunk, or injected, or sprayed on the bark.  These insecticides include emamectin benzoate, imidacloprid, and dinotefuran.  There is even a naturally-derived treatment, azadirachtin, that can protect trees for up to a year.

David Smitley, Michigan State University entomologist, reports that in 2010, the city of Midland injected all Ash trees felt to be worth protecting (about 50% of the Ash in the city) with emamectin benzoate.  Results exceeded expectations when all treated, and most untreated, trees survived. This contrasted with four other surrounding communities that treated lower percentages of their trees.  Although treated trees were well protected, nearly all the untreated (control) Ash trees in these other communities died within four years.  Smitley attributes the high survival rate of the untreated control trees in Midland to beetle populations crashing from exposure to the high number of treated trees (adult beetles feeding on leaves of a treated tree will die). Once a city stops an EAB outbreak with mass tree treatment, and enters a maintenance phase, experience shows that Ash trees should not need to be treated more than once every 2-3 years.

Texas Forest Service urban forester, Courtney Blevins, doubts whether most Texas cities will opt to treat because Ashes are not widely planted as shade trees here.  Most of the Ash Trees in the Austin area are Arizona Ash, and were planted 30-40 years ago.  This species is no longer favored in Austin.  The greater impact will likely occur in the native Texas forest, where stately ash trees add to the diversity and beauty of the East Texas woods.

The preceding may be of little consolation to you if you have a valued Ash tree in your yard. If this is the case, there are good treatments, as above, should you decide to protect your tree. You can rest a bit easy, though, since there is no need to worry about treating your tree(s) until EAB is confirmed within 10-15 miles of your home.


Monitoring for EAB continues throughout East Texas in 2015 as part of an APHIS-funded survey.

Do your part to keep Texas EAB-free: DO NOT BRING FIREWOOD INTO TEXAS!!!


Buy Local, Burn Local.  Keep EAB out of Texas!



If you suspect that you have EAB, contact the Texas Department of Agriculture at 1-800-835-5832 or USDA at 1-866-322-4512.



To Plant A Tree

OK, so you’ve decided to give your home the many benefits a tree provides.  Great!  You look forward to the shade that will help lower your energy bills, the branches that will provide you with a place to hang a tire swing for the kids, the increased soil holding that will give your property a hedge against erosion courtesy the tree’s root system and, certainly, the pleasant aesthetic enhancement that only a tree can provide for your happy homestead.

The above is all fine and good, but you must keep in mind that getting from a small sapling to a large, great looking tree may take anywhere from ten to twenty years, or more.  In line with that, you must take steps to assure the tree a chance to live long enough to realize all of its many positive qualities.

First Decide on Location

The first step towards growing a strong, healthy tree starts with its planting or “installation,” as the pros call it.  There are definite steps you need to take to insure that your tree makes it into its mature growth stage.  In the following, we’ll go over these steps.  A word of warning, first:  Do not assume that if you hire a tree nursery to do your installation that everything will be done correctly.  I have seen one of the biggest tree nurseries in Austin install trees absolutely the wrong way in both commercial and residential locations. You need to realize that turnover is great, in the tree installation business, and many workers who install trees are not up on the correct procedures involved with doing so.

You need to decide on a location, first.  IMPORTANT:  Have the utility line marking people come out BEFORE you even think about where to put the tree.  This is crucial, along with selecting the species you’re going to plant, as below.  If you plant a tree too close to your water, electric or sewer lines, you can bet that you are going to have trouble in the years to come.  Also, never site a tree too close to your house or fence if you want to avoid problems, later.  Keep in mind that trees planted too close to your property lines may get you in hot water with your neighbors, as well, due to root, branch, leaf and fruit problems.

Second, Decide on the Best Kind of Tree for the Right Spot

Once you’ve chosen your installation spot, select the right tree for the right location.  You need to be very up on the properties of a given tree before you install it.  How tall will it grow?  This is crucial if you’re installing the tree under, or near, power lines or other overhead structures.  It is not in the scope of this article to detail the many tree species available, along with their growth patterns, but you can find lots of information in other online articles about the specific species you choose to go with.  Will the tree be dropping fruit?  Will the fruit have an offensive odor?  Will the tree attract insect pests?  Will the tree be prone to dropping large branches as it matures?  These questions must be asked, along with many others, before you decide on a specific tree.

Third, Decide on the Sapling

Next, you need to decide what type of sapling you’re going to buy.  You can get one with its root ball wrapped in burlap and wire (a so-called “B&B” tree), a bare root tree, or a tree that comes in a pot of a chosen size.  The larger the root ball, the larger the pot, the larger the tree will be, in general.  Bare root trees are usually smaller than the preceding.  A larger B&B tree can be in a huge root ball and you will NOT be able to manage it alone.  In that case, you may want to go with the company selling it to you, but you should still oversee its installation for the reasons covered, above.

Fourth, When Should You Plant It?

You then need to decide when to plant the tree.  In general, you want to plant the tree when it’s in dormancy: no flowers, no fruits and, unless it’s an evergreen, no leaves.  Obviously, cool to colder weather will fit the bill, here.  I prefer mid-Fall planting.

Finally, Plant It

Next, it’s time to dig the hole or oversee the digging of the same.  It is crucial that you measure the size of the root ball being installed, whether it’s in a pot or B&B.  You need to know its diameter and height.  The hole you dig must be 2-3 times the width of the ball and about 2-3 inches shallower than its height.  The sides should be roughed with a shovel so the new roots can get a better hold for penetration, in the future, and those sides should be sloped, as opposed to perfectly vertical. If you’re planting a bare root tree, the hole should be dug using the roots as a guide.  That is, see how long the roots are and count that as your diameter and height.  Where the roots begin coming out of the stem, the root flare, that is the part you want 2-3 inches above grade.

When it’s time to install the tree, in the case of a B&B or potted tree, try to keep as much of the original soil on the roots, as possible.  Once the B&B tree is positioned correctly in the hole, be sure to remove the burlap and twine that it came with, to the extent that is recommended.  Wire and twine left wound and fastened around the top of the root ball will eventually girdle the growing tree and kill it.  While it is still debated, I recommend removing the top third, to half, of the wire basket, if possible. With container trees, simply treat the root and soil mass like the B&B tree.  With bare root trees, gently spread the roots to fan out from the trunk, and then position in the hole.

Fill in the hole with the original dirt.  I don’t recommend adding other “enhanced” dirts or fills.  Tamp the dirt down as you fill it in.  You don’t want to leave large air pockets.  Water the area to settle the dirt and give the tree a drink.  Do not water until the dirt is a muddy mess as you may drown the tree.  When everything is done, check the tree.  See if you can gently rock it.  If it moves too easily, you should stake it with three tree stakes, wire and tree protectors.  Do NOT wrap the wire around the tree, in a loop.  It will girdle the tree, and kill it as it grows.  Put down a 2-3” layer of mulch around the tree in a swale and berm configuration.  Do NOT let the mulch contact the tree’s trunk, stopping it about 4-8” away from the same.  Water the tree weekly if there is no rain for the preceding week.  Remember, overwatering kills more trees than drought. We can advise you on how long to water, based on the size of your new tree.

The preceding is not an exhaustive guide to tree planting but should give you a place to start when you begin thinking about planting a new tree.  At Happy Tree, we would enjoy helping you with your tree planting decisions and installations.  When you start off with all of the right decisions and moves, and we can make sure you do, you help better the odds that your new tree will not only be a happy tree once it’s installed, but it will go on to be a mature, great looking happy tree over the years to come, adding value and enjoyment to your homesite!  Please give us a call at: 512-212-0010.  Thanks!

What is That Bush on a Stick Doing on my Lawn?

You bought your brand new house.  Great!  Your hopes and dreams are being realized.  You love your new community.  You’re on a roll!  Good for you!  While I don’t want to rain on your parade, I must warn you:  Trouble lurks, right on your front lawn.

Let’s get into what that trouble may be: When developers build their new communities, putting up houses at speeds that amaze and mystify, they do not often give much thought to what trees they’re going to plant on the front lawns of those new homes.  Only when the homes are built, and everything else is signed off on, do the developers have their contracted landscape companies come in and plop a few trees on the front lawns of each of hundreds of houses, in one fell swoop.  Often, those trees are planted incorrectly, but that is a subject for another article from your humble Certified Arborist.  What I will deal with, today, is the failure of the new trees you see on the front lawns of newly built houses in new real estate developments.

Developers and builders buy trees by the millions.  As their bottom line is what they value, above all, not much thought is put into the quality of the trees they install.  They look for the most trees for the least cash outlay.  They want trees that grow fast and don’t require much work, at least during the time they still can be held accountable for them by new homeowners.  These homeowners have other things on their minds when they first move in.  They don’t pay attention to their lawn trees, usually.  In time, within the first three to five years, those trees grow and grow and——- It’s a bush on a stick, maybe two, maybe more, that now sit on their front lawn.  In the biz, we see these bush on a stick trees, daily.

What are the ramifications, health-wise, for these trees?  First off, let’s make sure we’re on the same page:  A bush on a stick is a tree that looks like a, a, a —-well, a bush on a stick.  The canopy is so thick that you cannot see individual branches, you cannot see any daylight through that canopy, and the effect is simply a large blob of brush on a thin, elongated trunk.  Got the picture?  Simply drive through your nearest, new real estate development to see things more clearly.

When a tree is a bush on a stick, sunlight cannot penetrate through the canopy, nor can air reach the leaves in healthy amounts.  As a result, certain predictable, and harmful, things happen, in the canopy.  Numerous pathogenic processes can initiate:  Fungal spores can diffuse into the canopy, their settling on leaves aided by slowed air flow.  These spores can germinate quickly, because of the raised ambient humidity in the tight canopy.  Different insect pests seek refuge in the tight, dark, humid, inner canopy.  Gall wasps can infest the interior space.  Birds can nest in the dark recesses, and while the birds, themselves, do not actively harm the tree, nesting materials they bring in may contain more pathogens that can attack the tree.  Two of the most important factors for good tree health, sunlight and fresh air, are seen to be greatly limited.  Additionally, with the clumping of the canopy, poor branch form becomes the rule as the tree struggles to grow in a more “normal” way.  Branches cross each other, branches rub each other, included bark forms in branch crotches where two branches diverge, leading to poor attachments and, eventually, branch failure.

When we examine the types of trees, as above, we see the same things over and over, again:  Leaf spot, caused by fungal pathogens, and galls, round wooden balls that harbor the larvae of gall wasps and are caused by female wasps.  We also see the poor branch structure referenced above.  All of these conditions can lead a given tree into a downward mortality spiral and premature death.  So, what can be done?

The most important thing you can do for a bush on a stick is to have the experts at Happy Tree come out, trim and prune the tree to promote sunlight penetration and airflow.  By carefully removing up to 25% of the overgrown canopy, Happy Tree can restore airflow and sunlight to a given tree and remove it from the bush on a stick category.  Trees that can breathe and receive the beneficial rays of the sun are, in fact, happy trees, and at Happy Tree we can make sure your trees are headed in the right direction towards their long-term health and survival. The benefits are long-lasting, and because we prune your trees with care, you will immediately see a difference in their overall appearance:  They’ll not only be healthier, they’ll look healthier, as well.

Please give Happy Tree a call, today, at: 512-212-0010.  We want to turn your bush on a stick into a happy, healthy tree.  Thanks!

Oak Wilt: What’s With Those HOA Warning Signs?

On the way out of the house, this morning, you noticed that your Live Oaks could use a bit of trimming.  Now, you’re on your way home from work.  You’re thinking of calling Happy Tree to do that trimming, since they did such a great job, last time around.  Suddenly, there it is:  A BIG sign posted by your HOA:  “Avoid Oak Wilt! Do not trim your Oaks from mid-February through mid-June!”  What is going on?  Should you forget about having your Oaks trimmed, since it’s the middle of April?

Oak wilt is caused by the fungal pathogen Ceratocystis fagacearum.  This fungus invades oaks, mainly Red Oaks and Live Oaks, via root grafting from previously infected trees, and by having fungal spores deposited in open wounds and cuts by a vector agent, the Nitidulid Beetle.  In the case of spore deposition by the beetle, once the spores germinate in the sap and conductive tissue of the tree, the fungus circulates throughout the tree.  When the growing fungal pathogen is established in the conductive tissue, the leaves of the tree can no longer transport sugars throughout the tree, and water transport is also inhibited.  This results in very rapid death, in Red Oaks, and a downward mortality spiral, in Live Oaks.  White Oaks can also get oak wilt, although there is some evidence that they have more resistance to it than the aforementioned Red and Live Oaks.

Signs of oak wilt infection are fairly clear in Live Oaks:  Veinal necrosis, a pattern seen in leaves where the veins are orange, spreading out in a diffuse orange to the surrounding green leaf tissue, is a fairly reliable confirmation of infection.  Live Oaks can survive an infection for a period of years, with more and more leaves showing the veinal necrosis symptom until the time that most leaves have fallen and are no longer replaced by the tree.  Death follows. Foliar symptoms of oak wilt on Red Oaks are less distinct. In early spring, young leaves simply wilt, turning pale green and brown, usually remaining attached for a period of time. Mature leaves develop dark green, water-soaked symptoms, or turn pale green or bronze, starting at the leaf margins and progressing inward. This can begin on one branch and quickly engulf the entire tree. Red Oaks generally die within 4-6 weeks.

Red Oaks develop fungal mats during the infective process.  These mats are composed of groups of spore-bearing bodies that grow under the bark, raising it, slightly, in areas, normally on the trunk.  The mats put off a distinctive odor, similar to Juicy Fruit gum, as I perceive it.  The nitidulid beetles can smell this odor from a good distance away, depending on prevailing wind conditions.  They land on the tree, eat the fungal mats, and pick up spores in the process.

Now, we’re getting back to the first paragraph of this article:  When you cut an oak limb, and fail to paint the cut within the first fifteen minutes, you are sending an olfactory “come and get it” to every nitidulid beetle in the area.  The beetles are attracted to the sap that exudes from fresh cuts in oak trees.  If the beetles have previously eaten from a fungal mat, as above, and they land on the fresh cut, to feed on the sap, the spores on their bodies, from the fungal mat, can become mired in the sap, and germinate there, to infect the tree with the new cut.

So, why the warning sign, from your HOA, with the time period for no trimming?  Nitidulid beetles are known to be active from the middle of February to the middle of June.  By convention, before that, it’s too cold, after that, it’s too hot.  Thing is, with the weird weather patterns we now have in Central Texas, nothing is certain, anymore, when it comes to nitidulid beetle life cycles.  They may be around before February and/or after June.  Nobody can be sure.

When your HOA warns you about not trimming oaks, what is the reality of the situation?  If you cut a tree, sap will exude from the cut.  If the cut is not painted, as above, there is a chance that nitidulid beetles will be attracted to the cut.  There is a chance that the beetles landing on the cut, to feed, will have oak wilt spores on their bodies, from previously feeding on infected Red Oaks.  There is a chance that some spores will germinate on the cut and infect your tree.

OK, so, what’s your best course of action?  Should the HOA sign dissuade you from trimming your trees during the time frame they post? The simple answer: YOU should NOT trim your trees, during that time.  The good news is that Happy Tree can trim your trees, year-round.  We paint all cuts, in all oaks, and in that way we protect your trees from nitidulid beetles feeding on the sap exuding from the cuts we make.  Since we climb up to many cuts we make at great heights, heights that you will not have access to, and we have pole painting rigs to assist us in painting cuts we can’t get right up to, Happy Tree makes sure that your trees maintain their optimal health, year-round.

It should be noted that root grafting is a major cause of oak wilt spread in neighboring trees.  If a tree in your area has been identified as having oak wilt, and you have oaks that are within 100’-150’ of that tree, it is a good idea to have your healthy oaks injected with the chemical propiconazole that will help protect them from the disease.  At Happy Tree, we have a Texas Licensed Pesticide Applicator who can do this job.

Should you have any questions about oak wilt, please contact us at Happy Tree.  Our Certified Arborist, Miles J. Lefler, is also a Certified Oak Wilt Specialist, ISA.  He will be happy to answer your questions.

At Happy Tree, we want to make sure that your trees stay happy and healthy.  Give us a call at: 512-212-0010.  Thanks!


By Miles J. Lefler

Certified Arborist at Happy Tree Services

Ball Moss: Don’t Let It Get A Hold Of Your Tree!

If you live in the Greater Austin Area, then it’s a safe bet that you have seen ball moss, at one time or another.  Have you ever wondered exactly what you’re looking at, and whether or not it can harm the trees you see it in?  Let’s try to “get to the root” of what you’ve observed.

About Ball Moss

First off, Ball Moss, Tillandsia recurvata, while certainly appearing to be a ball-like growth, of sorts, in the trees, is actually not a moss.  In fact, Ball Moss is in the Bromeliaceae Family, a Family that includes the familiar Pineapple.  It is an epiphyte, which means it does not grow in the soil but, rather, it anchors itself on a structure to gain support.  Its roots, called “pseudo roots,” are used to anchor itself to its host.  (The beautiful orchid, so prized by flower lovers, also has epiphyte members in its family.)  The pseudo roots are not used to gather moisture and nutrients.  Ball moss gets its moisture from the air, nutrients from windblown dust, and fixes its nitrogen using available bacteria in the tree.  It uses photosynthesis to produce its own energy.

Ball moss reproduces by true seed production. Most seedlings germinate on tiny branches or on the vertical bark of tree hosts. As with many other epiphyte seeds, most researchers believe ball moss seeds are dispersed by the wind. Some believe birds serve as a major seed dispersal agent. The seeds are armed with fine, straight hairs that aid in attachment to potential host species.

Is Ball Moss a Parasite?

So, is ball moss harmful to trees?  Strictly speaking, since ball moss is not a true parasite (an invader that draws nutrients from a host species), it is not harmful to its tree hosts.  However, let’s not be too quick to dismiss ball moss as being OK for your tree’s health and continued survival.

Ball moss prefers high humidity, low light, low airflow conditions.  These exact conditions are present in trees that are never pruned (trimmed).  Over time, if ball moss thrives, it can come to dominate a tree’s above-ground surface.  What happens, then, is that the tree’s branches receive less light to stimulate new growth.  With reduced growth, reduced leaves, the tree loses more and more of its photosynthetic capabilities, leading to less energy production for growth and immune response.  The tree then becomes locked into a downward mortality spiral which, ultimately, leads to declining health and death.  It should be noted, here, that some researchers also believe that ball moss can compete for trace nutrients and moisture in the canopy, as well as shading the tree’s growth areas.

Happy Tree Service of Austin Can Help

With all of the above in mind, should you see ball moss in your trees, we encourage you to contact us at Happy Tree Service of Austin.  Our skilled crew is ready, willing and able to help rid your tree of ball moss, by mechanical means:  We trim and prune the tree to remove the deadwood that provides ideal growing areas for ball moss.  We also climb into the high canopy and pick the ball moss off.  While doing this, we trim your tree to encourage lower humidity, more airflow and more light penetration.  That discourages future ball moss growth.

We can guarantee that a majority of your ball moss will be gone by the time we’re done with your job.

We hope you’ve enjoyed learning about ball moss. Please give us a call whenever you have concerns about the continued good health of your trees!

Proper Tree Trimming

Proper tree trimming and maintenance includes regular pruning or removal of branches to improve the life of the whole tree. Tree trimming is often initiated to remove dead or diseased parts of the tree before the affect the rest of the tree or other trees. Trimming a tree also benefits surrounding vegetation by providing increased air flow and sunlight. Done correctly, tree trimming creates stronger trees that do not have branches threatening structures, power lines, or other parts of your property.

Tree trimming is best performed in late winter or early spring. However, if your tree has dead, broken, or diseased limbs, it is advised to prune immediately to prevent further damage. Ideally, other pruning occurs before the tree opens its buds, but if you happen to prune after that time, be sure to allow the tree to develop their leaves.

Tree Trimming Services – Big or Small Needs

The first step in trimming a tree is identifying which tree. After you know this, you can begin to move anything that may be in harms way. Most jobs require only hand pruners, loppers, and a pruning saw. Hand pruners can cut smaller pieces, while loppers are designed for wood a bit larger. Both hand pruners and loppers come in two types: bypass and anvil. Bypass act like scissors and are recommended for their clean cuts. Saws are used for even larger branches.

Tree Trimming Services in Austin

Our Austin tree trimming services are designed to help the tree(s).But if you try to take up the work yourself, some damage may occur to the tree itself or the surround property. There are many problems that you could run into like- cutting into the branch collar of the tree. (Do you know what the branch collar is?) The branch collar contains the chemicals necessary for healing other trimmed parts and cutting into the branch collar will retard the sealing of other areas. Also, it is not recommended to coat any areas you cut with a dressing. Exercising some restraint to trim your trees and letting a professional tree trimming service help you, will in the end- help promote healthier trees and safer environment.